For future reference, I believe you have to see your trophy count change before it takes affect. Even if you saw your victory and then it crashed, I think it still wouldn’t have counted.
If your game crashes on screenshots during battle, check and see if there’s another way for your phone to screenshot. I was having the same problem, but then I found an option under Accessibility > interaction and dexterity > Assistant menu > on
Then in that same setting window, I could select assistant menu items. I noticed one of the items I could add was screenshots. Now I have this little floating bubble on my screen and I can tap it and select screenshot and it will screenshot without crashing my game. Not sure if you have the same option, but may want to look if you have additional screenshot options